Renaissance and Reformation

For the purposes of this course, the Renaissance represents the beginning of modern history. It brought about a myriad of changes, economic, social, and political, from the Middle Ages. It was a time of great political, social, and economic change. However, religion probably saw the greatest change. During this time, a series of reformers began to break away from the Catholic Church, changing Christianity forever.


Renaissance Communes Oligarchies Republic The Prince
Humanism Secularism Individualism Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges Star Chamber
Christian Humanism In Praise of Folly Utopia Edict of Worms Transubstantiation/Consubstantiation
Peace of Augsburg Act of Supremacy Book of Common Prayer Puritans Catholic/Counter Reformation
Council of Trent St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Edict of Nantes Spanish Armada The Peasant's War of 1524




Shakespeare Machiavelli da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael
Brunelleschi Gutenberg Medici family Petrarch Durer
Erasmus John Calvin Martin Luther Jesuits Ignatius Loyola
Huguenots Henry IV Philip II Elizabeth I "Bloody" Mary



  1. Describe the trends of the papacy's decline during the 14th century.
  2. What social and economic factors helped create Renaissance society?
  3. Describe the impact the Renaissance had on women.
  4. Explain how the Renaissance could be considered the start of "modern history"
  5. How did the Renaissance differed between Italy and the rest of Europe?
  6. How was science viewed by Renaissance society?
  7. How did the Catholic Church respond to the Renaissance?
  8. What are the characteristics of Renaissance art?
  9. What was Luther's fundamental religious problem?
  10. Why was the Peace of Augsburg such a revolutionary decision?
  11. How did the reformation in England differ from that in Germany?
  12. What made the reformation in Switzerland so politically unique?
  13. What were the similarities between Luther and Calvin? What were the differences?
  14. How did the Catholic Church react to the Reformation?
  15. What impact did the Jesuits have on religion Europe? The New World?

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