Nationalism and Revolutions

In part because of the changes enacted the Congress of Vienna, and in part because of economic inequity created by the Industrial Revolution, the mid to late-19th century represented a time of growing nationalism and revolutions. These revolutions spread out across all of Europe - no country was spared. Each one looked a bit different, but they all had similarities. They all represented an unsatisfied lower class rebelling against the established government, and they were almost all unsuccessful for various reasons.


Crimean War "Iron and Blood" Speech North German Confederation Reform Bill of 1867 Origin of the Species
Realism Sweatshops Second Industrial Revolution Internal Combustion Engine Social Democratic Party
May Day Public Health Act of 1875 Irish Home Rule France's Third Republic Reichstadt
Kulturkampf Zemstovos White-collar jobs Internal combustion engine Madame Bovary



Napoleon III Mazzini Garibaldi Red Shirts Otto von Bismarck
Alexander II Queen Victoria Louis Pasteur Michael Faraday Charles Darwin
Charles Dickens Gottlieb Daimler Richard Wagner Lord Tennyson Michael Bakunin



  1. What are the political and economic goals of nationalists in the mid-1800s?
  2. Who was the most influential nationalist from the era? Why?
  3. How can the Frankfurt Assembly be described as a nationalist assembly?
  4. What were the main causes of the Revolutions of 1848?
  5. What pattern did many of these revolutions follow?
  6. "When France sneeze, all of Europe catches a cold." What is meant by this statement?
  7. Describe the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, president of the Second French Republic? How did he become an emperor?
  8. Who was the most important person in the Italian Unification movement? Why?
  9. How was Italy finally unified?
  10. What problems still faced Italy after unification?
  11. Describe serfdom in Russia. How does it differ from American slavery?
  12. "1848 was the turning-points at which history didn't turn." What is meant by this statement?
  13. Explain Bismarck's political outlook.
  14. How did Britain deal with the "Irish problem?"
  15. How did Freud influence the understanding of human behavior?



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